Thursday, 17 August 2017

Optical Wireless for Engineering Services

THE PROBLEM: Engineering services firms must add or re-assign personnel on deadline to meet customers ‘time-sensitive project demands. Large-scale engineering projects for rapidly changing corporations require temporary facilities such as rented office space or portable office trailers, which need high-speed network connectivity for access to large data files from computer-aided design (CAD), modeling, process simulation and imaging applications. To remain competitive, engineering services firms must operate flexible high speed networks that enable employees to collaborate projects from a centralized server. For engineering services networks with two or more sites, wired T1/E1 connections are insufficient. The steep costs of trenching and installing fiber—combined with the many months necessary to obtain permits and complete an installation—make dedicated fiber an unattractive option. For deployment of centralized network data centers and support of critical applications in multiple buildings, neither wired T1/E1 connections or fiber are viable, due to throughput constraints or costs. To avoid the enormous costs of fiber, installations that can take months and the throughput limitations of T1 and E1 connections, engineering services firms are turning to Optical Wireless solutions.
THE SOLUTION: Engineering services firms with two or more buildings visible by line-of-sight are turning to high-speed Optical Wireless bridging solutions for real-time inter-building collaboration. Now, users in multiple buildings or portable sites can access a centralized data center at the same speed as if they were in the same building. Leveraging proven free-space optics (FSO) technology, Optical Wireless solutions combine the speed of fiber with the flexibility of wireless. Using laser beams, engineering services firms can instantly transmit data at light speed without the complications of leased or dedicated lines. Optical Wireless solutions can be rapidly deployed, often in a single day, and re-deployed for future networks and customer-driven requirements.


Ajay Sharma

ECE Dept. JIMS Gr.Noida

Tuesday, 8 August 2017

IMPORTANCE OF CORE LIFE SKILLS

Life skills are abilities for the adaption and positively applying in behaviour that enable humans to deal judiciously and effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. It is the psychosocial competency within individuals. They are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life. The subject varies greatly depending on social norms and community expectations but skills that functions for well-being of society and aid individuals to develop into active and productive members of their communities are considered as life skills. There are many such skills, but core life skills include the ability to: The Ten core Life Skills as laid down by World Health Organization are:
1. Self-awareness: Self-awareness includes recognition of ‘self’, our character, our strengths and weaknesses, desires and dislikes. Developing self-awareness can help us to recognize when we are stressed or feel under pressure. It is often a prerequisite to effective communication and interpersonal relations, as well as for developing empathy with others.
2. Empathy - To have a successful relationship with our loved ones and society at large, we need to understand and care about other peoples’ needs, desires and feelings. Empathy is the ability to imagine what life is like for another person. Without empathy, our communication with others will amount to one-way traffic. Worst, we will be acting and behaving according to our self-interest and are bound to run into problems. No man is an island, no woman either! We grow up in relationships with many people – parents, brothers and sisters, cousins, uncles and aunts, classmates, friends and neighbors’. When we understand ourselves as well as others, we are better prepared to communicate our needs and desires. We will be more equipped to say what we want people to know, present our thoughts and ideas and tackle delicate issues without offending other people. At the same time, we will be able to elicit support from others, and win their understanding. Empathy can help us to accept others, who may be very different from ourselves. This can improve social interactions, especially, in situations of ethnic or cultural diversity. Empathy can also help to encourage nurturing behavior towards people in need of care and assistance, or tolerance, or people with mental disorders, who may be stigmatized and ostracized by the very people they depend upon for support.
3. Critical thinking: It is an ability to analyze information and experiences in an objective manner. Critical thinking can contribute to health by helping us to recognize and assess the factors that influence attitudes and behavior, such as values, peer pressure and the media.
4. Creative thinking: It is a novel way of seeing or doing things that is characteristic of four components – fluency (generating new ideas), flexibility (shifting perspective easily), originality (conceiving of something new), and elaboration (building on other ideas).
5. Decision making: It helps us to deal constructively with decisions about our lives. This can have consequences for health. It can teach people how to actively make decisions about their actions in relation to healthy assessment of different options and, what effects these different decisions are likely to have.
6. Problem solving: It helps us to deal constructively with problems in our lives. Significant problems that are left unresolved can cause mental stress and give rise to accompanying physical strain.
7. Interpersonal relationship: Such skills help us to relate in positive ways with the people we interact with. This may mean being able to make and keep friendly relationships, which can be of great importance to our mental and social well-being. It may mean keeping, good relations with family members, which are an important source of social support. It may also mean being able to end relationships constructively.
8. Effective communication: It means that we are able to express ourselves, both verbally and non-verbally, in ways that are appropriate to our cultures and situations. This means being able to express opinions and desires, and also needs and fears. And it may mean being able to ask for advice and help in a time of need. Coping with stress means recognizing the sources of stress in our lives, recognizing how this affects us, and acting in ways that help us control our levels of stress, by changing our environment or lifestyle and learning how to relax. Coping with emotions means involving recognizing emotions within us and others, being aware of how emotions influence behavior and being able to respond to emotions appropriately. Intense emotions like anger or sadness can have negative effects on our health if we do not respond appropriately.
9. Coping with stress: The research findings say that 95% of all the diseases are created by stress. Wrong beliefs like “I’m not good enough” or "Something is wrong with me" cause up to 95% of all illness and disease. The membrane of the cell is the brain of the cell, not the nucleus. Our beliefs are stored in the membrane of our cells. Unless we are fully aware of what we are doing and why we are doing it at every moment, we are always acting on our unconscious programming stored as beliefs in our cells. Scientific research has established that stress is the core factor in physical, mental, and emotional disease. Discovering how unconscious physical, mental and emotional habits create stress, aging, addiction and disease, through awareness and simple lifestyle changes reclaiming youthful vitality, joy and well being.
10. Coping with Emotion: Emotional Factors in Mental well being our feelings are a wonderful barometer of our well being. When we are not caught up in negative thinking, our feelings remain positive, and we feel joyful, loving and peaceful. When we are feeling fearful, angry, or depressed it is a sure sign that our thoughts have become negative and dysfunctional. Developing this awareness and making the decision to eliminate negative thinking can be dramatically life changing. Alter your own brain chemistry with thoughts of appreciation, gratitude, joy and love.


Dr. D. N. Singh                                                                                                                 
 Assistant Professor,
JIE, JEMTEC, G. Noida

Wednesday, 5 July 2017

Role of Yoga in Education

Yoga has been defined as “chitta vritti nirodha” that means “stops all internal and external forms of thinking which may sprout with or without violation” – stilling the mind.
When we look at the role of yoga in education from various angles, including the type of education that was being provided to children throughout the world as well as the different levels of stress that children face in the classroom environment. The difficulties, problems, conflicts, distractions and dissipation of their energies were also considered. We should start using certain principles and practices of yoga, firstly, as an experiment to increase the children's learning ability and, secondly, to inspire teachers to teach their subjects in a slightly different way.
We have to look at what science says about the growth of a child, what psychoanalysis says about child psychology and how the hormones and glands alter and influence the rationality, emotional structure and creative output of the child.
Balancing both hemispheres of the brain
Science tells us that there are two hemispheres in our brain, the right and the left. These two hemispheres perform different functions. The functions of the left hemisphere are linear, logical and intellectual. Those of the right hemisphere are artistic, creative and intuitive.
The subjects which are taught follow a linear, logical system, whether it is maths, history, geography, physics, chemistry or medicine, whether it is advanced education or secondary education. In this process only one side of the brain is stimulated - the linear, logical side.
In order to balance the other aspects, we teach children the arts. We encourage them to practise music, to paint, to perform plays. We encourage them to use their creativity. But if you compare the influence of the different lobes of the brain, you will find that the linear and logical are more pronounced than the artistic and creative. This is one point.

Overall Academic Improvement


Stress is a major obstacle to academic achievement, and yoga's stress relief powers have been shown to boost student performance.

Improved Memory


Yoga has been shown to improve memory in both adults and children, a benefit that would seem certain to improve academic performance. 

Improved Attention Span


Controlling attention is a challenge for children, partly because the brain's frontal lobes, which control the power of attention, mature later than some other functions. Yoga requires attention, which can be a challenge for younger yogis, but it has also been found to enhance the ability to control attention, even in hyperactive children.


Yoga asanas build strength, flexibility and confidence. Regular practice of yoga can help lose weight, relieve stress, improve immunity and maintain a healthier lifestyle.

Yoga is an invaluable gift of India's ancient tradition. This tradition is 5000 years old. It embodies unity of mind and body; thought and action; restraint and fulfilment; harmony between man and nature; a holistic approach to health and well-being. It is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness with yourself, the world and the nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help in well being.
Mr. Nitin Tyagi
Assistant Professor (ECE)

Monday, 12 June 2017

Determinants of Dividend Policy by Companies

The payment of dividend involves some legal as well as financial considerations. It is difficult to determine a general dividend policy which can be followed by different firms at different times because dividend decision has to be taken considering the special circumstances of an individual case. The following are important factors which determine dividend policy of a firm:

1. Legal Restrictions: Legal Provisions relating to dividends as laid down in section, 205, 205A, 206 and 207 of companies Act, 1956 are significant because they lay down a framework within which dividend policy is formulated. These provisions require that dividend can be paid only out of current profit or past profits after providing for depreciation. The companies (Transfer of Profits to Reserves) Rules, 1975 require a company providing more than 10% dividend to transfer certain percentage of current year’s profit to Reserves.
Companies Act, further provides that dividend cannot be paid out of capital, because it will amount to reduction of capital adversely affecting the security of creditors.

2. Desire and Type of Shareholders: Although, legally, the direction as to whether to declare dividend or not has been left with BOD, the directors should give importance to desires of shareholders in declaration of dividends as they are representatives of shareholders. Investors such as retired persons, widows, and other economically weaker persons view dividends as source of funds to meet their day-to-day living expenses. To benefit such investors, the companies should pay regular dividends. On other hand, a wealthy investor in a high income tax bracket may not benefit by high current dividend incomes. Such an investor may be interested in lower current dividend and high capital gains.

3. Nature of Industry: Nature of Industry to which company is engaged also considerably affects dividend policy. Certain industries have comparatively steady and stable demand irrespective of prevailing economic conditions. For example, people used to drink liquor both in boom as well as in recession. Such firms expect regular earnings and hence follow consistent dividend policy. On the other hand, if earnings are uncertain, as in the case of luxury goods conservative policy should be followed. Such firms should retain  a substantial part of their current earnings during boom period in order to provide funds to pay adequate dividends in the recession periods. Thus, industries with steady demand of their products can follow a higher dividend payout ratio while cyclical industries should follow a lower payout ratio.

4. Age of Company: It also influences dividend decision of company. A nearly established concern has to limit payment of dividend and retain substantial part of earnings for financing its future growth while older companies which have established sufficient reserves can afford to pay liberal dividends.

5. Future Financial Requirements: If a company has highly profitable investment opportunities it can convince the shareholders of need for limitation of dividend to increase future earnings and stabilise its financial position. But when profitable investment appointments do not exist then company may not be justified in retaining substantial part of its current earnings. Thus, a concern having few internal investment opportunities should follow high payout ratio as compared to one having more profitable investment opportunities.

6. Liquid Resources: The dividend policy of a firm is also influenced by availability of liquid resources. Although, a firm may have sufficient available profit to declare dividends, yet it may not be desirable to pay dividend if it does not have sufficient liquid resources. Hence liquidity position of company is an important consideration in paying dividends. If company does not have liquid resources, it is better to declare stock dividend i.e. issue of bonus shares to existing shareholders.

7. Requirements of Institutional Investors: Dividend policy of a company can be affected by requirements of institutional investors such as financial institutions, banks, insurance corporations etc. These investors usually favour a policy of regular payment of cash dividends and stipulate their own terms with regard to payment of dividend on equity shares.

8. Stability of Dividends: Stability of dividend refers to payment of dividend regularly and shareholders generally, prefer payment of such regular dividends. Some companies follow a policy of constant dividend per share while others follow a policy of constant payout ratio and while there are some other who follow a policy of constant low dividend per share plus an extra dividend in years of high profits. A policy of constant dividend per share is most suitable to concerns whose earnings are expected to remain stable over a number of years or those who have built up sufficient reserves to pay dividends in years of low profits. The policy of constant payout ratio i.e. paying a fixed percentage of net earnings every year may be supported by firm because it is related to firms ability to pay dividends. The policy of constant low dividend per share plus some extra dividend in years of high profits is suitable to firms having fluctuating earnings from year to year.

9. Magnitude and Trend of Earnings: The amount and trend of earnings is an important aspect of dividend policy. It is rather the starting point of the dividend policy. As dividends can be paid only out of present or past’s years profits, earnings of a company fix the upper limits on dividends. The dividends should nearly be paid out of current years earnings only as retained earnings of the previous years become more or less a part of permanent investment in the business to earn current profits. The past trend of the company’s earnings should also be kept in consideration while making dividend decision.

10. Control objectives: When a company pays high dividends out of its earnings, it may result in dilution of both control and earnings for existing shareholders. As in case of high dividend pay out ratio the retained earnings are insignificant and company will have to issue new shares to raise funds to finance its future requirements. The control of the existing shareholders will be diluted if they cannot buy additional shares issued by the company. Similarly issue of new shares shall cause increase in number of equity shares and ultimately cause a lower earnings per share and their price in the market. Thus under these circumstances to maintain control of the existing shareholders, it may be desirable to declare lower dividends and retain earnings to finance the firm’s future requirements.


-Deepshikha Gupta
Assistant Professor

(JEMTEC, School of Law)

Factoring

Introduction  : Receivables constitute a significant portion of current assets of a firm. But, for investment in receivables, a firm has to incur certain costs such as costs of financing receivables and costs of collection from receivables. Further, there is a risk of bad debts also. It is, therefore, very essential to have a proper control and management of receivables. In fact, maintaining of receivables poses two types of problems; (i) the problem of raising funds to finance the receivables, and (it) the problems relating to collection, delays and defaults of the receivables. A small firm’ may handle the problem of receivables management of its own, but it may not be possible for a large firm to do so efficiently as it may be exposed to the risk of more and more bad debts. In such a case, a firm may avail the services of specialised institutions engaged in receivables management, called factoring firms.
Meaning and Definition  : Factoring may broadly be defined as the relationship, created by an agreement, between the seller of goods/services and a financial institution called .the factor, whereby the later purchases the receivables of the former and also controls and administers the receivables of the former. Factoring may also be defined as a continuous relationship between financial institution (the factor) and a business concern selling goods and/or providing service (the client) to a trade customer on an open account basis, whereby the factor purchases the client’s book debts (account receivables) with or without recourse to the client - thereby controlling the credit extended to the customer and also undertaking to administer the sales ledgers relevant to the transaction. The term” factoring” has been defined in various countries in different ways due to non-availability of any uniform codified law. The study group appointed by International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), Rome during 1988 recommended, in simple words, the definition of factoring as under: “Factoring means an arrangement between a factor and his client which includes at least two of the following services to be provided by the factor: · Finance · Maintenance of accounts · Collection of debts · Protection against credit risks”. The above definition, however, applies only to factoring in relation to supply of goods and services in respect of the following: i. To trade or professional debtors ii. Across national boundaries iii. When notice of assignment has been given to the debtors. The development of factoring concept in various developed countries of the world has led to some consensus towards defining the term. Factoring can broadly be defined as an arrangement in which receivables arising out of sale of goods/ services are sold to the “factor” as a result of which the title to the goods/services represented by the said receivables passes on to the factor. Hence the factor becomes responsible for all credit control, sales accounting and debt collection from the buyer (s).

Mechanism of Factoring : Factoring business is generated by credit sales in the normal course business. The main function of factor is realisation of sales. Once the transaction takes place, the role of factor step in to realise the sales/collect receivables. Thus, factor act as a intermediary between the seller and till and sometimes along with the seller’s bank together. The mechanism of factoring is summed up as below: i. An agreement is entered into between the selling firm and the firm. The agreement provides the basis and the scope understanding reached between the two for rendering factor service. ii. The sales documents should contain the instructions to make payment directly to the factor who is assigned the job of collection of receivables. iii. When the payment is received by the factor, the account of the firm is credited by the factor after deducting its fees, charges, interest etc. as agreed. iv. The factor may provide advance finance to the selling firm conditions of the agreement so require. Parties to the Factoring There are basically three parties involved in a factoring transaction. 1. The buyer of the goods. 2. The seller of the goods 3. The factor i.e. financial institution. The three parties interact with each other during the purchase/ sale of goods. The possible procedure that may be followed is summarised below.

 The Buyer
1. The buyer enters into an agreement with the seller and negotiates the terms and conditions for the purchase of goods on credit.
2. He takes the delivery of goods along with the invoice bill and instructions from the seller to make payment to the factor on due date.
3. Buyer will make the payment to the factor in time or ask for extension of time. In case of default in payment on due date, he faces legal action at the hands of factor.

The Seller
1. The seller enters into contract for the sale of goods on credit as per the purchase order sent by the buyer stating various terms and conditions.
2. Sells goods to the buyer as per the contract.
3. Sends copies of invoice, delivery challan along with the goods to the buyer and gives instructions to the buyer to make payment on due date.
4. The seller sells the receivables received from the buyer to a factor and receives 80% or more payment in advance.
5. The seller receives the balance payment from the factor after paying the service charges.

The Factor
1. The factor enters into an agreement with the seller for rendering factor services i.e. collection of receivables/debts.
 2. The factor pays 80% or more of the amount of receivables copies of sale documents.
3. The factor receives payments from the buyer on due dates and pays the balance money to the seller after deducting the service charges.

Benefits of Factoring:
A firm that enters into factoring agreement is benefited in a number of ways as it is relieved from the problem of collection management and it can concentrate on other important business activities.
Some of the important benefits are outlined as under:
(a) It ensures a definite pattern of cash inflows from the credit sales.
(b) It serves as a source of short-term finance.
(c) It ensures better management of receivables as factor firm is a specialised agency for the same.
(d) It enables the selling firms to transfer the risk of non-payments, defaults or bad debts to the factoring firms in case of non-recourse factoring.
(e) It relieves the selling firms from the burden of credit management and enables them to concentrate on other important business activities.
(f) It saves in cost as well as space as it is a substitute for in-house collection department.
(g) In provides better opportunities for working capital management.
(h) The selling firm is also benefited by advisory services rendered by a factor.
Limitations of Factoring:
In spite of May services offered by factoring, it suffers from certain limitations.
The most critical fall outs of factoring include:
(i) The high cost of factoring as compared to other sources of short-term finance,
(ii) The perception of financial weakness about the firm availing factoring services, and
(iii) adverse impact of tough stance taken by factor, against a defaulting buyer, upon the borrower resulting into reduced future sales.
-Deepshikha Gupta
Assistant Professor
(JEMTEC, School of Law)


Tuesday, 6 June 2017

Struggle of a Muslim Women in India: Diversity in Feminism

Index of modernization of any society lies in the position of its women vis-à-vis men, the more balanced remains in opportunity for men and women, the large the role women have in society. However, things are not so when it comes to a Muslim woman. In spite of various ameliorative efforts for the improvement in the status of women their condition has not improved much. The thinking that a woman is a commodity who has to bear the critical nuances of religion needs to change. For this change to come, a good religion or law is needed which can cope up with the demands of our progressive society.
Change is essentially needed as an effective tool against the prevailing clamour pertaining to the Muslim community. The rationale behind this blog is not to put any impression against any religious sentiments of the Muslim community, rather to throw a light onto those painful issues which are putting the persons of this particular community in agony. In spite of having all legal rights with regard to marriage, property, etc., the Muslim women have been deprived of all such enjoyments.
But, being a part of this developing nation, we cannot put these issues aside by considering it to be an interference with Islamic law & tagging and confining them as a private matter of Muslim’ community. It’s the need of the emerging time to scatter the rays of happiness in the life of these suffering women.
Moreover, it is presumed that Muslim women are also been given the equal right to divorce as a Muslim man has; Yes, they obviously are having such rights. But to procure those rights or to enforce those rights, one ought to need the free circumstances in which they can easily exercise such right without having any suppression or fear with regard to any future happening against them.
The concept of triple talaq, for example, can be said to have been misused by the people; falling prey to such age-old practices of ritualistic traditions cannot be considered as their (women) own folly. But as of now, triple Talaq, which is being blown out of proportion as an issue, can actually be a boon to many an abused woman. To go on harping on triple Talaq as though it is the monster that breaks marriages and oppresses women, is ridiculous.
However, if we talk about the concept of the triple talaq, it evokes curiosity to many question, i.e,
• Whether the Muslim women are not considered to be the part of this country who are not befitted to be entitled for all such rights which are enjoying by other women in this county?
• Whether they are here only for rearing child within the four walls of their homes?
• Why they would always be considered as a commodity and a subordinate one, who are forced to accede to all sayings of their husbands?
We can’t leave these questions unanswered. Certainly, any religion cannot be presumed taking away the means of living from any individual, especially women. Therefore, a person can’t be deprived of any of his/her right under the disguise of religious belief. Further, the lives of Muslim women cannot be allowed to be ruined” by the contentious custom.

The ideology behind the concept of triple talaq which has been disfigured by the people now-a-days, is not something in tune with what Quran has provided for; the justifiability of triple talaq has been faded away by the people in present times A religion can’t be brought forth to supersede the nobles and ideals of the Indian Constitution.

Hence, a state or a country cannot be considered as a prosperous one until and unless it’s been capable of being a source of inspiration for others (country), by amicably fulfilling all the pre-requisites of a welfare state. As we all know that India is a diversified nation. Hence, for the sake of maintaining the dignity of all, irrespective of their religion and sex, a revolutionary step ought to be taken in spite of the fact that it would, after a while, be considered as an interference with the personal laws. Even, the latter are not set free to strangulate the human rights of any person. A good law is one that is viable enough to be changed according to the circumstances that prevails.

Ms. Shovonita Acharjee.
Assistant Professor
School of Law.

Jims, Greater Noida

Friday, 2 June 2017

ROLE CONFLICT PROBLEM AMONG WORKING WOMEN

Women of India have marked their significant presence in the world in various fields. They have been given the status of power and prestige in India.   Indian women has got much more significance in today’s developing times. Where until lately, they were shadowed by patriarchal dominance, the contemporary women in India have moved beyond all social boundaries to emerge as triumphant leaders of tomorrow. Not only has She taken up courageous roles in society, her own individuality as a ‘woman’ has now got an improvised meaning. The world has changed for females in India now. The daughters are pursuing successful ambitions in the male dominated corporate scenario and mothers are taking up flextime jobs to showcase their exceptional managerial talent. Today, our women have stepped out to become bread earners of the family. Although the trend is yet developing in India, The IT-BPO sector is becoming a female dominated industry in India with a significant number of capable and qualified female workforce delivering exceptional performances at the corporate level. Hospitality, Retail and Financial sectors are also not lagging behind in such changing scenarios  
Emergence of middle class, women of this segment have developed to a great extent. They form the major female work force of India. In various sectors and fields of work, these middle class women have majorly been employed. Conflicts arise when one or the other party is not able to reach to an agreement. It is the stage where disagreement crops up.
Women assuming multiple roles results in work family conflict because time and energy are shared, clubbed and even extended across the two spheres of activity. When a housewife enters into gainful employment outside home she not only finds a change in her role and status within the family and outside it, but she also finds herself under increasing pressure to reconcile the dual burden of the two roles at her home and her workplace because each is a full time job. Coping up with the situation requires not only additional physical strength, personal ability and intelligence on the part of a working woman but also requires the members of her 'role set' to simultaneously make necessary modifications in their expectations. When conflict between the two life domains occurs the consequences are reflected in both organization and domestic life
Role conflict happens when there are contradictions between different roles that a person takes on or plays in their everyday life. In some cases the conflict is a result of opposing obligations which results in a conflict of interest, in others, when a person has roles that have different statuses, and it also occurs when people disagree about what the responsibilities for a particular role should be, whether in the personal or professional realms  successfully pursue her dual roles, the working homemaker has to work within a strict time schedule and arrange things more systematically which itself necessitates greater mental and physical alertness. Coupled with her interaction with the outside working world, it induces changes in her behaviour, perception and life style. She is likely to become more rational, pragmatic and individualistic in her outlook which may lead to changes in her work-division, marital relationship, and relations with in-laws and authority patterns within the family. A woman's employment outside home implies two things; her decreased availability to others and also increased demands placed upon others to enable successful performance of her two roles. In case of conflict between the job and the home roles, it is mostly the job role that gets curtailed while the wife-mother role always predominates. How rich or poor a woman may be, her primary role is towards husband, home and children. Some women do not want to sacrifice their profession to the family because of their high socio-economic status, strong job-commitment and high degree of independence but such cases are found to be rare in our study. Role conflict is an outcome of conflicts in number of roles performed by an individual working women are major victims of this issue. They perform number of roles through their lives to an extent that they fail to retain their own identity .A major problem of conflict and identity crises crops up
  As women increasingly gain occupational mobility, they are not only exposed to the same physical hazards of work environment as men but also exposed to the pressures created by multiple role demands and conflicting expectations. By fulfilling their economic needs, employment has no doubt made women independent with an identifiable social status but it has also made them to juggle into two main domains of life- work and family. They have stepped into work place but the role responsibilities women still remain the same, i.e., women

CONCLUSION It can be challenging to manage several role obligations including demands from school, work, relationships, family, and friends, A strategy to help deal with role conflict is to prioritize the things that are most important to us and deciding to eliminate things that are less important. One way to do this is to make a list and rate the things on that list from most important to least important. A woman is the world in itself. Her beauty, care knowledge etc has no substitute in the world .It is important to realize that we as woman have immense power. This power must be used efficiently. No family runs without the sacrifices or adjustments made by the women. But they must be limited in extent .She should not feel incomplete or a mere worker. Her own individual identity should never cease to exist. Husband, parents etc must realize her worth in their life and take good care of her .Middle class families make the most of the adjustment in life but these adjustments should not become the part of any ones identity. Multiplies roles, Office pressure, family pressure are part of today’s life. But these hurdles are becoming rocks in path of healthy life. In it vital to cultivate necessary reforms in today’s lifestyles for a better and healthier tomorrow.

DR RICHA SRIVASTAVA
(ASSISTANT PROFESSOR)