Saturday, 10 March 2018

Software Defined Networking

SDN is short for software defined networking. Software defined networking (SDN) is an approach to using open protocols , such as open flow, to apply globally aware software control at the edges of the network to access network switches and routers that typically would use closed and proprietary firmware.

Benefits of Software Defined Networking
Software defined networking offers numerous benefits including on-demand provisioning, automated load balancing, streamlined physical infrastructure and the ability to scale network resources in lockstep with application and data needs. As noted on enterprise networking concept, coupled with the ongoing virtualization of servers and storage, SDN ushers in no less than the completely virtualized data center, where end-to-end compute environments will be deployed and decommissioned on a whim.

An open flow switch separates these two functions. The data path portion still resides on the switch, while high-level routing decisions are moved to a separate controller, typically a standard server. The Open-Flow Switch and Controller communicate via the OpenFlow protocol, which defines messages, such as packet-received, send-packet-out, modify-forwarding-table, and get-stats.
The data path of an OpenFlow Switch presents a clean flow table abstraction; each flow table entry contains a set of packet fields to match, and an action (such as send-out-port, modify-field, or drop). When an OpenFlow Switch receives a packet it has never seen before, for which it has no matching flow entries, it sends this packet to the controller. The controller then makes a decision on how to handle this packet. It can drop the packet, or it can add a flow entry directing the switch on how to forward similar packets in the future.
In other words it provides one, open-standard methodology of optimizing traffic, end-to-end, and in the near future SDN is bound to change the way communication network is managed.

Shekhar Singh
Asst. Prof.
Deptt of CSE

Indian Dream City

I do not hesitate to say that if India is to be seen as a powerful and united nation, then the process of urbanization must be accelerated. Romanticization of pastoral ideas, leaving nothing to sadness and pain, is nothing to achieve - 'Ah, our village!'
The social-economic, cultural and political arrangements of our villages are deeply paternal, community and caste. On the other hand, the social structures of our cities, at least, clearly and on the surface, are mostly decent and sensitive.
India is home to many castes, sub-classes, sects, religions, religions, ideologies and other non-defended social groups. Each of these groups has their own ideas and ways of thinking. With the advent of many foreign customs and cultures, for thousands of years, many contradictions developed between all these different belief systems, which kept the disciples away from each other. These distances contributed to the lack of faith and lack of trust in society resulting from ignorance and misunderstanding.
Periodic social conflict and violence in India are the result of lack of trust on this. Due to the absence of compulsions to try to overcome the physical distance between the natural nature of rural societies and different social groups, the lack of ignorance and belief can be taken more deeply in non-urban settings. Social silos are often so strong that attempts to break them to attract reactionary retaliation in the form of violence or arson are also made.
The nature of the Indian villages makes the order of the caste very clear that the whole village has been divided into a district which is populated by members of various castes. Generally, a traditional village was a self-sufficient unit, which meant that all the needs of the village were met by its inhabitants. However, untouchability is practiced to varying degrees and terrorists are against the ideal of self-sufficiency and allow the creation of oppressive weapons against depressed groups.

The possibility of education and mobility from the top, and, in fact, the main dignity of the person crushes through the structures of rural electric areas. It is for this reason that I believe that the autonomy of rural life should be replaced as soon as possible by the social interdependence of cities, which will contribute to the general progress and development of the whole country.
People do not ship in categories in big cities even if some religious or caste groups try to implement categories or hierarchies, then the administration or the police can immediately intervene to take action against them. Such intervention by state agencies in villages is very difficult in the face of social and numerical opposition to major castes and religious groups. It has been observed that many functions of the elected representatives of people and officers are influenced by caste or religious prejudices. These crowds are often absent in large cities

Mr.Babalu Kumar
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering

Friday, 9 March 2018

In-memory databases for IOT

The use of memory in computing is not new. But while memory is faster than disk by an order of magnitude, it is also an order of magnitude more expensive. That has for the most part left memory relegated to acting as a caching layer, while nearly all of the data is stored on disk. However in recent years, the cost of memory has been falling, making it possible to put far larger datasets in memory for data processing tasks, rather than use it simply as a cache.
It’s not just that it is now possible to store larger datasets in memory for rapid analytics; it is also that it is highly desirable. In the era of IoT, data often streams into the data centre or the cloud – the likes of sensor data from anything from a production line to an oilrig. The faster the organization is able to spot anomalies in that data, the better the quality of predictive maintenance. In-memory technologies are helping firms see those anomalies close to, or in, real-time. Certainly much faster than storing data in a disk-based database and having to move packets of data to a cache for analytics.
It is expected of data processing to accelerate dramatically, as companies come to grips with their data challenges and move beyond more traditional data analytics in the era of IoT. In-memory databases are 10 to 100 times faster than traditional databases, depending on the exact use case. When one considers that some IoT use cases involve the collection, processing and analysis of millions of events per second, you can see why in-memory becomes so much more appealing.
There’s another big advantage with in-memory databases. Traditionally, databases have been geared toward one of two main uses: handling transactions, or enabling rapid analysis of those transactions – analytics. The I/O limitations of disk-based databases meant that those handling transactions would slow down considerably when also being asked to return the results of data queries. That’s why data was often exported from the transactional database into another platform – a data warehouse – where it could more rapidly be analyzed without impacting the performance of the system.

Renu Yadav
Assistant Professor (BCA Dept.)

The biggest mistake almost every engineering student makes

Undertaking an engineering degree is one of the most difficult courses available. As a result, it is also one of the best paid professions around. For those who didn’t click the link, 6 out of the top 7 are engineering majors, with petroleum engineers unsurprisingly comfortably at the top of the list.
You need to spend a lot of time studying and working hard to be successful in engineering, far more than most degrees. If you want to succeed, consider your final two years to be more or less devoid of a social life. Many students, year after year, make the same mistake over and over again when studying engineering. I have seen countless examples of students who don’t realise they are making this one mistake that sets them up for failure.
What is the biggest mistake engineering students make? They don’t manage their time effectively!
Key #1 – Develop a realistic and challenging strategy
The first key to effectively managing your time is to have a strategy. Wars have been won and lost because of strategies that are excellent or poor! While your engineering degree may not be as serious (or violent) as a war, you need a strategy to help you succeed. You should set out to make a main, overall meta-strategy. This will cover what you need to do each week of your semester or trimester. From this main strategy, you can plan your weekly strategy.
The weekly strategy focuses on what time you will allocate to each subject and on which days. Next, each night after you have finished studying (or about to go to bed), write out a list of what you have to complete tomorrow. Keep in mind that your strategy does not need to be overly detailed; it just needs to outline what you need to do. If you have to study every week (and you do) then your strategy will have a point stating that you will study for X hours a week for each subject.
Your strategy should be realistic and challenging at the same time. Don’t expect to write a strategy outlining how you will spend the next 12 weeks studying for 18 hours a day. Nor should your strategy outline how you will spend 20 minutes every day studying. A combination of challenge (where you think it may not achievable) and realism (you know it’s possible to achieve it) will help you to reach your goals.
Key #2 – Take your education seriously
You are soon going to become a professional engineer, so it is important to develop the habits and actions of a professional. You can do this by spending some extra time doing what others don’t and prioritising your time to make the most of it.
I have seen students spend afternoons stacking chairs to create a pyramid. As marvellous an engineering feat the pyramid is, I don’t think that helped them succeed or do well.
In essence, stop wasting your valuable time.
Key #3 – Revise your strategy regularly
I know many people who are brilliant at writing a great strategy, planning everything down to the last detail. This strategy will then sit on their desk for the next two years having never been looked at again. A strategy is only useful if you use it, not to make you feel better about yourself by having everything ‘planned out.’ You want to revise your weekly and daily strategy nightly to ensure you are on track and keeping yourself up to date. You can check your meta-strategy once a week to see how you are coping and to write out your weekly plan.
Sometimes you can’t achieve it all – so just do what’s most important to you and if that means leaving something out then so be it.
Shilpa Sharma


Jahi McMath is legally dead in California, where a routine tonsillectomy on the thirteen-year-old girl done on Dec. 9, 2013 and she basically bled to death.  But she is still legally alive in New Jersey.  After refusing to let the California hospital harvest her organs, her family insisted that she was still alive and moved her to New Jersey to take advantage of a law that allows them to do so. 

New Jersey and New York are the only states which allow families to refuse a diagnosis of brain death if it violates their religious beliefs.  This exception was made to accommodate the beliefs of Orthodox Jews, who believe that breathing indicates life.  Not so long ago, most people and governments would have said the same thing, but then medicine developed the ability to monitor brain function via electroencephalography (EEG machine) as well as more sophisticated technologies such as MRI scans and automatic ventilator machines. 

These changes were reflected in a 1981 report written by a Presidential commission entitled Defining Death:  Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues.  Modern ventilator machines can keep the rest of a human body functioning even after the brain is destroyed - for a time.  But the ability to detect brain function with EEGs, plus the increasing popularity of organ transplants (which stand a better chance of success if the organ is harvested from a donor whose systems are still functioning) led to a redefinition of death as cessation of activity in the whole brain. 

In New Jersey, Jahi underwent a tracheotomy with insertion of a feeding tube.  Although she is still dependent on a ventilator, an MRI by a New Jersey brain researcher showed that parts of her cerebrum were intact.  The cerebrum is considered to be the seat of higher mental activity.  And there are videos showing that she can occasionally respond accurately to her mother's request to move certain fingers, as well as heart-rate changes when she hears familiar voices.  Because the legal limits on malpractice damages are capped at $250,000 but only if the victim dies, Jahi's parents are suing the State of California to bring about a trial in which a jury will determine whether Jahi is dead or alive in that state. In dealing with death, we have to base our actions on some theory that involves two different current narratives.

  1. Secular Narrative:  Human life on the whole is good, but utilitarian considerations of the greatest good for the greatest number tell us that if we use the criterion of brain death rather than more traditional definitions of death, organ transplants can benefit other people more.  

  1. Religious Narrative: God created the heavens, the earth and all that is in them.  He created humans with the ability to sin, which they unfortunately took advantage of, and death entered the world.  A person's spirit uses the brain, but brains are not necessary in order for a person to exist. 

There are both present and future reasons why Jahi's parents don't want her taken off the machinery that keeps her going.  One is the simple human desire to have your child with you.  

Medical science tells us that this is very unlikely in Jahi's case.  But broadly similar cases have resulted in the eventual recovery of the person involved.  In the magazine article's photo of Jahi on her bed in New Jersey, she is covered with a blanket that reads "I Believe in Miracles - Mark 11:24". Sometimes even the best and most advanced technology won't tell us everything we want to know.  And in such cases, faith may be a better guide than technical expertise.

Dr. Sanjeev Punia
Assistant Professor
Computer Science & Engineering

Climate change

“Scientific evidence for warming of the climate system is unequivocal.”
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate including temperature, precipitation or wind lasting for an extended period of time. The term “climate change” is commonly used interchangeably with Global warming and Greenhouse effect. The Earth is surrounded by an envelope of gases comprising of N2, O2, CO2, water vapourand other gases. It is this blanket of gases that controls the temperature on Earth. Climate change is primarily due to the human use of fossil fuels such as oil and coal which emit greenhouse gases like CO2, Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. These gases trap heat in the atmosphere which can have a range of effects on the ecosystem from melting of glaciers to rise in sea- levels, from floods in the low-lying areas to droughts in water deficient areas. While some quantities of these gases are naturally occurring and critical to maintaining Earth’s temperature, the world today is seeing a steep increase in the quantity of greenhouse gases- The atmospheric concentration of CO2 stands at about 400 ppm.Average surface temperature has risen by about 1.1 degree Celsius since the late 19th century,with 16 of the 17 warmest years on record occurring since 2001.
Besides temperature rise, indicators of climate change include warming oceans, shrinking ice sheets, glacial retreat, decreased snow cover, sea level rise, severe extreme events, ocean acidification etc. Rising sea levels due to the melting of polar ice caps has increased the risk of flooding in low lying areas of most of the continents, warming ocean temperatures has contributed to stronger and more frequent storms, rising temperatures has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of wildfires and increased severity of heat waves has contributed to an increasing number of deaths.
The world community woke up to this threat to the planet in the 1990s with the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 during the Earth Summit on Rio de Janeiro. According to this convention, the developed countries initially agreed to a non-binding commitment to reduce the level of their greenhouse gases to 1990 level by 2000. During the COP3 held at Kyoto, Japan, legally binding obligations were imposed on the developed countries to reduce their overall greenhouse emissions by 5.2% below their 1990 level in the commitment period of 2008-12 with a shift to cleaner energies such as solar and wind. Kyoto protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) and entered into force on February 15, 2005. Carbon trading is the mechanism employed for the implementation of the protocol. USA and China which together account for a huge 42% of world’s CO2 emissions are not a party to the protocol, which makes it effectively a non-starter. With the protocol expiring by 2015, world leaders sat down in 2015 to decide the future course of action to tackle climate change. So was born the Paris Agreement at the COP 21.
Paris Agreement is an international agreement to combat climate change. Aim is to limit the temperature rise to well below 2 degree Celsius above the pre-industrial level and “endeavor to limit” it to 1.5 degree Celsiusby the end of 21st century. Focus is on limiting the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity to the same levels that trees, soil and oceans can absorb naturally. The Paris Agreement has a ‘bottom up’ structure in contrast to most international environmental law treaties which are ‘top down’. It requires all parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs). There is a provision to review each country’s contribution to cutting emissions every five years so that they scale up to the challenge.The rich countries are required to help poorer nations by providing “climate finance” to adapt to climate change and switch to renewable energy.  Paris agreement is binding on all the countries, be it developed or developing countries. Paris agreement entered into force on 4th November 2016.

Recently in 2017, USA, largest greenhouse gas emitter withdrew from the agreement, which has put a serious question mark on the effectiveness of the climate change agreement. There is a pertinent need for all the countries to come together and work towards mitigation and adaptation. Green Climate Fund (GCF) was set up in 2010. It requires developed countries to contribute $100billion dollars by 2020 towards adaptation and mitigation efforts. Climate change entails serious implication for the economy of the world. The negative impact on the agriculture has the potential to cause severe hunger at the global level. Flooding of cities like Bombay and Shanghai can cause massive displacement of people, creating climate refugees. Thus, it is imperative to understand that each and every country of the world has equal stake in saving this planet from the fury of nature

Assistant Professor
School of Law


The concepts, culture and society are closely related.  Culture is defined as all the products of society-- material and nonmaterial; Society consists of interacting people living in the same territory who share a common culture. We really can't have one without the other (unless you want to call archaeological remains and historical records "culture"). People in society create culture; culture shapes the way people interact and understand the world around them
Different people define culture in different ways, for example "Culture: learned and shared human patterns or models for living; day- to-day living patterns, these patterns and models pervade all aspects of human social interaction. Culture is mankind's primary adaptive mechanism"1. Another author says that "Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another." from these definitions it is clear that both explains the same idea but in different words, says that culture is first learned after learning it is then shared so it's a common fact that the younger first learn the culture from their elders and when these young become elders they transfer it to the next generation. But the culture learned it includes all the aspects of human interaction and thus it become the mankind's adoptive mechanism. In the second definition the author says that the culture is the programming of mind so it includes everything related with the mind programming and because of these different minds programming different group of people distinguish from each other..
Culture determines what we know--   the sum of all the angles in a triangle; what ascrew driver is used for; how to use a computer to find out where Peloponnesians are.Culture also determines what we don't know--  how to catch a fish by hand; how to build a dugout canoe and navigate the South Seas without chart or compassCulture determines what we want to be--  lawyer;  dairy farmer;  computer programmer;  doctor; shaman; pearl diverulture has great importance. Culture is the identity of the nation, without culture the society is impossible. An author says about the importance of culture that "culture is the set of transmitted and learned behavior patterns, beliefs, institutions and all other products of human work and thought that characterize the functioning of particular population, profession, organization or community"10, so the only representative of the particular community or population is the culture. Culture is the basic root of any community which gives them the ways of life. The culture provides solution to the critical problem that is faced to community. Culture teach us to think for the whole nation not individually, it provide the concept of family, nation etc.. Culture is the Treasury of Knowledge
Culture provides knowledge, which is essential for the physical and intellectual existence of man. Birds and animals behave instinctively with environment. But man has greater intelligence and learning capacity. With the help of these, he has been able to adapt himself with environment or modify it to suit his convenience. Culture has made such an adaptation and modification possible and easier by providing man the necessary skills and knowledge. Culture preserves knowledge and helps its transmission from generation to generation through its means that is language helps not only the transmission of knowledge but also its preservation, accumulation and diffusion. On the contrary, animals do not have this advantage. Because culture does not exist at such human
Culture defines social situations for us. It not only defines but also conditions and determines what we eat and drink, we wear, when to laugh, weep, sleep, love to like friends with, what work we do, what god we worship, what knowledge we rely upon, what poetry we recite and so on.
 Culture sets limitations on our choice to select different careers. Individuals may develop, modify or oppose the trends of their culture but they always live within its framework.Culture directs and confines the behavior of an individual. Culture assigns goals and provides means for achieving them. It rewards noble works and punishes the ignoble ones. It assigns him status
Culture exercises a great influence on the development of personality. No child can get human qualities in the absence of a cultural environment. Culture prepares man for group life and provides him the design of living. It is the culture that provides opportunities for the development of personality and sets limits on its growth. As Ruth Benedict has pointed out every culture will provide its special type or types of personality
It is culture that makes the human, a man, regulates his conduct and prepares him for group life. It provides to him a complete design for living. It teaches him what type of food he should take and in what mariner, how he should cover himself and behave with his fellows, how he should speak with the people and how he should co-operate or compete with others. An individual abstained from culture is less than human; he is what we call feral, man. The individual to be truly human must participate in cultural stream without it he would have been forced to find his own way, which would mean a loss of energy in satisfying his elementary needs
Secondly, culture provides man with a set of behavior even for complicated situation. It has so thoroughly influenced that often he does not require any external force to keep himself in conformity with the social requiremen
Through culture men gets traditional interpretation for many situations according to which he determines his behavior. If a cat crosses his way, he postpones his journey. It may however be noted that these traditional interpretation differ from culture to culture. Among some culture owl is regarded as a symbol of wisdom and not a symbol of idiocy.
Culture has importance not only for man but also for the group. Had there been no culture there would have been no group life. Culture is the design and the prescription for guiding values and ideals. By regulating the behavior of the people and satisfying, the primary drives pertaining to hunger and sex it has been able to maintain group life. Culture has provided a number of checks upon irrational conduct and suggestibility culture aids such as in schooling or scientific training. Lessen the chances that a man will behave irrationally or irresponsibility. The members of group characterized though they be by consciousness of kind, at once competing. They are held in line by constraints prescribed by culture.
Culture has given a new vision to individual by providing him a set of rules for co-operation of the individuals. He thinks not only his own self but also of the others. Culture teaches him to think himself a part of the larger whole, it provides him with the concept of family, state, nation and class and make responsible the co­operation and division of labor.
Culture also creates new needs and new drives, for example, thirst for knowledge and arranges for the satisfaction.
Our culture should be upheld as our heritage. Nothing and no one should be allowed to attack or destroy our cultural traditions. It is always wise to remember that our cultures define our existence and make us who we are. It should be passed on generations after generation, like it has been done until now. Our cultural background should never fade into oblivion and we have to make sure of that. A world without diverse cultural will not be as colorful as it is now.

Dr Richa Srivastava
Assistant Professor
Law Department