Wednesday, 4 October 2017

GRID COMPUTING

INTRODUCTION
Grid computing is a processor architecture that associates computer resources from various areas to reach an objective. In grid computing, an individual computer can connect with networks of computers that can perform the task together, thus working as a super processor. It is a form of interconnected computer systems where the machines utilize the same resources collectively. The concept of grid computing invented in the early 1990s as a symbol for making powerful computers as easy as to work with power grid. A computational grid is a collection of mixed type of computers and the resources spread across numerous administrative fields with the resolute of providing users easy access to these resources. Speaking technically, Grid computing enables the virtualization of distributed computing and data resources such as processing, network bandwidth and storage capacity to create a single system image, granting users and applications seamless access to vast information technology

Fig. 5 Grid computing architecture. The computing load is distributed by the main grid server over a large number of heterogeneous machines, including HPC systems. 
Architecture of Grid Computing
It is a form of distributed computing that contains organizing and sharing computational power, data storage and interconnections across dynamic organizations. It is a model which is used to provide solutions for data sharing and analysis for engineering sciences, industry and commerce. It can be considered as data sharing systems with non-interactive workloads which involves a large number of files (Collection of data). Due to increasing in the number of applications, the utilization of Grid Infrastructure has radically better to meet the need of data sharing, computational, storage and other needs. All the resource needs of today’s demanding applications cannot simply meet in a single location or a site, therefore by using distributed resources can carry many benefits to the users of applications. It can be an effectual organization of heterogeneous, geographically distributed and dynamically available resource by deploying in Grid Computing.
In the current world data analysis plays a major role in major industries, thus handling all the data sharing and storing can give up to Grid Computing for better performance. Big data is business transformation. So every organization is trying to analyze their big data. Big data poses implementation problems in extreme conditions. There are some methods to use grid computing along with Hadoop.
METHODS OF GRID COMPUTING
Distributed Supercomputing: It combines multiple high-capacity resources on a computational grid into a single, virtual distributed supercomputer. And Tackle problems that cannot be solved on a single system.
High-Throughput Computing: Using the grid to schedule large numbers of loosely coupled or independent tasks, with the goal of putting unused processor cycles to work. Thus the high throughput computing was achieved.
On-Demand Computing: It has a capability to meet short-term requirements for resources that are not locally accessible and its models real-time computing demands.
Data-Intensive Computing: The focus is on synthesizing new information from data that is maintained in geographically distributed repositories, digital libraries, and databases. Data intensive computing is particularly useful for distributed data analysis.
Logistical Networking :It concern with global scheduling and optimization of data movement. It is contrasts with traditional networking, which does not explicitly model storage resources in the network and by called "logistical" because of the analogy it bears with the systems of warehouses, depots, and distribution channels.
BENEFITS OF GRID COMPUTING
Exploiting underutilized Resources One of the basic uses of grid computing is to run an existing application on a different machine. The machine on which the application is normally run might be unusually busy due to a peak in activity.
Parallel CPU capacity The potential for massive parallel CPU capacity is one of the most common visions and attractive features of a grid. This computing power is driving a new evolution in many fields.
Virtual resources and virtual organizations for collaboration Another capability enabled by grid computing is to provide an environment for collaboration among a wider audience.
Access to additional resources In addition to CPU and storage resources, a grid can provide access to other resources as well. The additional resources can be provided in additional numbers and/or capacity.
Resource balancing For applications that are grid-enabled, the grid can offer a resource balancing effect by scheduling grid jobs on machines with low utilization.
Reliability High-end conventional computing systems use expensive hardware to increase reliability.

Ms. Ruchika
Assistant Professor
BCA

Importance of the Guru in our life

The Guru-Disciple tradition is a unique feature of our Indian culture. We celebrate this tradition on the occasion of Guru-purnima which helps us to understand the importance of the Guru in our life. The Guru is the one who takes out ignorance from us. Our teachers are our Guru. That is why, 'Teacher's Day' should be celebrated on the auspicious day of Guru-purnima to offer gratitude at the feet of our teachers. 'Guru' is a term in which 'Gu' means 'darkness' (hidden) and 'ru' means 'removal'. Guru is the one who removes the ignorance of disorder from our life and teaches us how to live a blissful life.
The Two Gurus in our life
1. Our Parents are our first Guru, who inculcate good values in us and help us to blend with our society. Our parents teach us everything in our childhood stage. They make us aware what is right and what is wrong. They inculcate good habits in us – for example – Why and how to pay respect to our elders and to greet different people to whom we meet, to welcome our guests etc.
Since our parents tell us all these things, they are our first Guru. That is why we must respect and salute them everyday and this is the real gratitude towards them.
2. Our teachers are our second Guru, who teaches us so many things to make us better human beings in this world. Actually, Teacher's day must be celebrated and on this day we should bow down in respect to the teachers and ask for their blessings. Our teachers give us knowledge of various subjects. They give us broad vision of life – which we should live for our Nation, not for ourselves. Our teachers lead us to the path of progress and development by teaching us various subjects with an unselfish attitude.

Besides, they also teach us the subjects like social science and economics and make us aware that we owe to the society in which we live. Through Economics, they teach us to earn money by fair means and not by corrupt means. Today we observe that our whole nation is enveloped by corruption. Teachers feel that we should change this sad state of affairs.

Rajnee Gaur
Assistant Professor
JIE

Safety Capacitors First: Class-X and Class-Y Capacitors

A Special Class of Capacitors

Class-X and Class-Y capacitors are safety-certified capacitors generally designed and used in AC line filtering in many electronic device applications. These safety capacitors are also known by other names, including EMI/RFI suppression capacitors and AC line filter safety capacitors. (EMI stands for electromagnetic interference and RFI stands for radio-frequency interference; RFI is simply higher-frequency EMI.)

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/uploads/articles/Example_of_Class-Y_cap1_edit.jpg
An example of a Class-Y capacitor
 Class-X and Class-Y capacitors help to minimize the generation of EMI/RFI and the negative effects associated with received EMI/RFI.
In order for these capacitors to perform their EMI/RFI filtering tasks, they are directly connected to the AC power input, that is, the AC “line” and the AC “neutral” (see Figure 2 below). And because of this direct connection to the AC voltage, the capacitors may be subjected to over voltages and/or voltage transients—lightning strikes, power surges. Thus, capacitor failure is a very real possibility.
When a Class-X capacitor, also referred to as an "across the line capacitor"—the capacitor placed between line and neutral—fails because of an overvoltage event, it is likely to fail short. This failure, in turn, would cause an over current protective device, like a fuse or circuit breaker, to open. Therefore, a capacitor failing in this fashion would not cause any electrical shock hazards.
If a Class-Y capacitor, also known as the "line to ground capacitor" or "the line bypass capacitor"—the capacitor placed between line and ground—fails short, this could lead to a fatal electric shock due to the loss of the ground connection. Class-Y safety capacitors are designed to fail open. A failure will cause your electronic device to be subjected to the noise and interference that the capacitor would normally filter out, but at least there will be no fatal electric shock hazard.

Shilpa Sharma

A.P., ECE

Saturday, 23 September 2017

Benefits of Meditation

What is meditation? Meditation is a relaxation. Meditation is not about concentration, in reality it is the process of getting rid of concentration. This is not the focus of our thoughts on any object, but it is a process of being thoughtless. Major benefits of meditation are: Peaceful mind, Good concentration, Better clarity, Better communication, and Brain and body rejuvenation and relaxation

Health Benefits of Meditation: Due to meditation, there are special changes in the internal functions of the body and every cell of the body is filled with vitality (energy). Increased vitality in the body increases the communication of happiness, peace and enthusiasm.

Benefits at the physical level: Decreased hypertension, decreased lactate in the blood, decreased anxiety / distraction. The body related to stress causes less pain.  Relief from stress borne headaches, wounds, insomnia, muscle and joint -pain. Sterotonin hormones which produce better condition and behavior are produced. The immune system improves. Energy level increases due to the advancement in the energy source of energy.

Spiritual benefits of meditation: There is no religion of meditation and those who believe in any ideology can practice it. I am something to absorb this feeling in an effortless way in infinite and treating yourself as the indivisible character of the infinite universe. In the state of meditation, you are in the expanse of happiness, peace and infinite and this quality is provided to the environment, thus you become established in harmony with creation. Meditation can bring a personal change in you truthfully. The more you know about yourself, the more natural you will be able to find yourself more.


Benefits of Meditation for students: Increase in confidence, More focused and clear mind, better health,Better mental strength and energy, More mobility

How to gain meditation benefits: Regular practice is necessary to realize the benefits of meditation. It takes only a few minutes everyday. Once you assimilate once daily in the routine, meditation becomes the best part of the day. Meditation is like a seed. When you grow the seed with love, it blossoms as much. Every day, busy people of all areas stop their actions by gratitude and enjoy the fresh moments of meditation. Go into your infinite depths and enrich your life.

Nitin Tyagi

Deptt of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Technology of the future: 4G & 4G VoLTE


You may have heard words like 3G, 4G, VoLTE, or LTE floating around. But what do they mean? If you are considering buying a new phone, you’ll probably need to know a little bit about these networks before taking a trip to the mall.

The frequency used by 4G networks to transmit data is different from that of 3G networks. 4G is basically the fourth generation of consumer networking technology. It offers faster speeds as compared to 3G and is considered an evolutionary benchmark in developing Internet speeds. LTE is actually first generation 4G technology. Many technologies have been competing as 4G standards. Some of these include LTE, Worldwide Inter operability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), and Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB). 4G was manifested due to following reasons:

In March 2008, The International Telecommunications Union-Radio (ITU-R) agency decided on certain specifications for the standards of 4G.
These were:
·The peak download speeds for high mobility devices should be 100Mbits/s. High mobility refers to devices that are constantly on the move like when you use a phone in a car.
·Download speeds for low mobility devices should be 1Gbit/s.Low mobility refers to times when you are stationary (local wireless access) while using your device.
Unfortunately, this was not possible for telecoms operators to live up to. However, a few years later, the ITU allowed services rolled out by telecoms operators to be marketed as 4G as they were beyond 3G speeds. At present, the ITU does not have a definition as to what is 4G.

LTE, sometimes marketed as 4G LTE means Long Term Evolution. It is the protocol over which data is transferred. It was developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). This technology was created to provide up to 10x more speed than that of 3G networks. At present, even though LTE doesn’t reach the ITU-R guidelines, it is still the fastest network. LTE has also introduced a number of new technologies to operate more efficiently. Some of these include Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM), Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), and System Architecture Evolution (SAE).

VoLTE stands for Voice over LTE. This technology supports voice communication over LTE. It gives users the benefit of using voice and data at the same time. VoLTE is sometimes referred to as HD voice as it enables high-quality voice calls. It supports quicker call connections, video calling, and WiFi calling. This technology enables users to make calls from their phones without using third-party apps like Skype. With VoLTE phones, the Global System for Mobiles (GSM) and the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technologies, which are the technologies used to facilitate 2G and 3G data, are expected to become obsolete as it will integrate both voice and data together in not too distant future.


Shekhar Singh
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science

Wednesday, 20 September 2017

India's Train Mishaps in Last 10 Years and ways to prevent them

India’s death toll from train derailments in 2016-17 is now the highest in a decade. 193 People died in these accidents despite a sharp dip in trains mishaps- fewest in 10 years (104) ending March 2017; 78 of these accidents were derailments. On 23 August, 2017, a train derailment brought in more flak for the Railways. At least 70 people were injured when nine coaches of the Delhi-bound Kaifiyat Express derailed in Auraiya, Uttar Pradesh. The train, travelling from Azamgarh to Delhi, collided with a dumper around 3am between Pata and Achalda railway stations, a North Central Railway spokesperson said. Earlier this month, Puri-Haridwar Utkal Express, derailed near Muzaffarnagar on 18th August killing 23 passengers and injuring over 60. After two major train accidents in a week, Suresh Prabhu, the Minister for Railways, offered to resign from his post.
Train Derailments
While the number of train accidents has significantly reduced in the last 10 years, derailments have gone up. The proportion of derailments in the total accidents was 75%in 2016-17, the highest in 10 years. These incidents have brought the focuss on flaws within the Indian Railways as reports reveal train derailment leading the cause of major train accidents in last decade in India. These incidents have brought the focus on safety issues Indian Railways has been grappling with. Reports suggest train derailment is the primary cause for major trains accidents in the in last decade in India.
Loss of Life
The unfortunate derailment of Utkal express in Muzzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh) claimed more than 20 lives and left scores of others injured. But, how many people are killed in train accidents each year? On 11th August 2017, a BJP Rajya Sabha MP from Gujarat, asked Railway Minister to provide details of the of train accidents in the last two years and the loss of lives in these mishaps. The government informed the house that 122 persons were killed in train accidents in 2015-16 and 238 persons were killed in 2016-17.
Train Accidents in Last 5 Years
Nearly 53 percent of the 586 train accidents in the last five years were due to derailments with the Utkal Express derailment being the latest. The worst accident was the November 20, 2016 derailment of the Indore-Patna Express+ near Kanpur which resulted in 150 deaths and over 150 injuries
Reason for Derailments
Derailments are mainly caused by rail fractures. The 2016 Indore-Patna train tragedy was attributed to rail fractures Most of the coaches of the trains are also old. On April 3, 2017, India Spend reported that track failures and subsequent derailments are caused by twin factors–excessive – traffic and underinvestment in rail infrastructure.

Last Ten Years - a chronology
August 19, 2017: At least 20 people were killed and 92 injured when 14 coaches of the Kalinga Utkal Express derailed in Muzaffarnagar district in Uttar Pradesh.
January 21, 2017: 29 people were killed and 50 others injured when the Jagdalpur-Bhubaneswar Hirakhand Express derailed in Andhra Pradesh's Vizianagaram district.
December 28, 2016: Two passengers were killed and over 65 injured when 15 coaches of Sealdah-Ajmer Express derailed near Rura, 50 km from Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh.
November 20, 2016: 149 people were killed and over 300 injured when 14 coaches of Patna-Indore Express derailed near Pukhrayan station, close to Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh.
August 4, 2015: 25 people were killed and 25 others injured as bogies of Mumbai-Varanasi Kamayani Express derailed and fell into Machak river in Harda district of Madhya Pradesh. Minutes later, the Janata Express also derailed at the same spot.
March 20, 2015: 39 people were killed and 150 injured as Dehradun-Varanasi Janata Express derailed in Uttar Pradesh's Rae Bareli.
May 4, 2014: 20 passengers died and 100 others were injured as Diva Junction-Sawantvadi passenger train derailed between Nagothane and Roha stations in Raigad district of Maharashtra.
May 26, 2014: 25 people were killed and over 50 others injured when Gorakhpur-bound Gorakhdham Express rammed into a stationary goods train near Khalilabad station in Sant Kabir Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh.
July 10, 2011: 70 people were killed and hundreds injured when 15 coaches of the Delhi-bound Kalka Mail derailed in Fatehpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
May 28, 2010: 148 passengers were killed when the Gyaneshwari Express was derailed by Maoists in West Midnapore district of West Bengal.
How to Prevent Train Accidents
  • Never walk on or along railroad tracks—trespassing is illegal!
  • Always look out for warning signs and signals.
  • Always assume there is a train coming, as trains can run on any track at any time.
  • Be aware that trains cannot stop quickly. The average freight train traveling 55 miles per hour takes a mile or more to stop.
  • Only cross tracks at designated crossing areas, and always look both ways before crossing.
  • Never try to beat a train across the tracks. There is no reason to risk your life for a few extra minutes.
  • If you’re in a vehicle, don’t stop on the tracks. Before you cross, make sure there is enough room for your vehicle on the other side. There should be at least 15 feet between the end of your vehicle and the tracks.
  • If your vehicle stalls on a crossing, get everyone out immediately. Stand far away from the tracks, even if you don’t see a train. Then call the emergency notification number posted on or near the crossing, or call local law enforcement.
  • Be aware that some vehicles, like school buses, commercial buses and trucks carrying hazardous materials, must always come to a full stop at railroad crossings. (State laws vary.)
  • It might look easy and fun in the movies, but it is extremely dangerous to attempt to jump on board a moving train. A minor slip could lead to a lost limb or even death.

Gunjan Mittal Roy
Asst. Prof.

ECE Department

Tuesday, 19 September 2017

Breaking Down Walls for Women Empowered Women Trainers Serve as Role Models

As gender-sensitive women teachers can be role models for girls, empowered women trainers can help teachers they train to understand and reduce stereotypes and prejudices by drawing on women's experience, or "lived realities." They can turn demeaned and devalued traditional female behaviours into respected assets that benefit themselves, their professions and their societies. All cultures have long recognized that "different" is too often a synonym for "deficient" and seen as a consequence of immutable female "nature." This can confine women to stereotyped and restricted gender roles. Feminism in the 1970's understandably accepted the "gender blind" argument that women's differences were a result of nurture (or lack of) rather than nature and if women were given the same opportunities as men, these differences would disappear. Since the 1980's a voluminous body of literature has acknowledged and heralded women's ways of doing things in which differences--such as skills in and attention to consultation, cooperation and facilitation; and process and consensus building --are celebrated and esteemed and their capacity to transform society is promoted. Gender neutral participatory activities in the TEP brought to the surface many of the differences between men and women and the need to address them directly. Over the past two decades, the link between women's private and public lives has been at the heart of the international women's movement and the subject of worldwide media attention.
In private, women behave a certain way with a certain kind of freedom. When they are in public or around men, the behaviour change is significant. There is a consistent implication that the presence of men (in a setting outside the home) creates a public domain, even in an informal setting. When there are just women, there isn't this tension. Women are not assertive or empowered in the public sphere. With dramatics, singing, action, lots of activity, it comes much more spontaneously to them; except when doing it publicly. If they are outside the classrooms, they will not do it because they will be afraid, what will people think--they are dancing in front of other people.
For the TEP to succeed in empowering women, the influence of a gender-sensitive woman trainer on both men and women teachers cannot be underestimated.
The percentage of women teachers in schools has been increasing steadily in recent years. From 43.46% in 2008-09, it rose to 44.83% in 2009-10, 45.51% in 2010-11 and 49.21% by 2014-15. The shift started in the 1990s, when the government launched Operation Blackboard, reserving 50% of jobs in schools for women. The trend is likely to intensify. In 2010-11, according to the University Grants Commission, education was the only stream of study to have more girls than boys: 3.24 lakh girls as opposed to 2.64 lakh boys had signed up to take up teaching as a vocation.
The data of enrolled girl students in B.Ed. programme shown by few states universities yearwise is:
States/Year
Enrolled Percentage of Girls in B.Ed. Programme
2013
2014
2015
2016
Delhi
65
69
74
80
Rajasthan
46
49
52
64
Haryana
52
56
62
65
Punjab
58
52
59
65
Uttar Pradesh
NA
67
73
76
Madhya Pradesh
56
59
64
73
Bihar
54
61
68
72
Uttrakhand
50
58
62
65

This data shows that our Govt. policy and improvement in education system has opened the door for females in teaching profession. The females of India have also playing an important role to make a successful pragramme for women empowerment.  

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar
Assistant Professor
JIE, Gr. Noida